Howard Gardner claims that all human beings have multiple intelligences. These multiple intelligences can be nurtured and strengthened, or ignored and weakened. He believes each individual has nine intelligences:
|1||Verbal-Linguistic Intelligence |
well-developed verbal skills and sensitivity to the sounds, meanings and rhythms of words
|2||Mathematical-Logical Intelligence |
ability to think conceptually and abstractly, and capacity to discern logical or numerical patterns
|3||Musical Intelligence |
ability to produce and appreciate rhythm, pitch and timber
|4||Visual-Spatial Intelligence |
capacity to think in images and pictures, to visualize accurately and abstractly
|5||Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence |
ability to control one's body movements and to handle objects skillfully
|6||Interpersonal Intelligence |
capacity to detect and respond
appropriately to the moods, motivations and desires of others.
|7||Intrapersonal Intelligence |
capacity to be self-aware and in tune with inner feelings, values, beliefs and thinking processes
|8||Naturalist Intelligence |
ability to recognize and categorize
plants, animals and other objects in nature
sensitivity and capacity to tackle deep questions about human existence, such as the meaning of life, why do we die, and how did we get here.
Gardner's multiple intelligences theory challenged traditional beliefs in the fields of education and cognitive science :
|TRADITIONAL VIEW OF "INTELLIGENCE"||"MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES" THEORY|
|Intelligence is a uniform cognitive capacity people are born with. ||Multiple intelligences can foster learning and problem-solving styles.|
|It can be measured by short-answer IQ tests. ||Short answer tests do not measure mastery or deep understanding. At best, they only |
measure rote memorization skills and one's ability to do well on short answer tests.
|People are born with a fixed amount of intelligence. ||Human beings have all of the intelligences, but each person has a unique combination.|
|Intelligence level does not change |
over a lifetime.
|We can all improve each of the intelligences, though some people will improve more readily in one intelligence area than in others.|
|Intelligence consists of ability in logic and language – basically, the 3R's. ||There are many more types of intelligence which reflect different ways the child interacts with the world – the eight kinds of "smart".|
|In traditional practice, all the students learn the same material. ||Multiply Intelligences imply that students learn and are assessed differently based on individual intellectual strengths and weaknesses.|
|Students learn a topic or |
|Student learning activities are well-thought out around an issue or question, and go beyond the subject boundaries. Students use various strategies that allow them to demonstrate multiple ways of understanding, and their uniqueness is appreciated. |